Birch reduction of pseudoephedrine

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An increasing number of the clandestine methamphetamine laboratories (currently roughly estimated at 20%) use a procedure known as a dissolving metal reduction, Birch reduction, or in the popular literature as the “Nazi” method, of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine commonly extracted from over-the-counter medications.
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The Birch reduction, also called the "Nazi method", became popular in the mid-to-late 1990s and comprised the bulk of methamphetamine production in Michigan in 2002. It reacts pseudoephedrine with liquid anhydrous ammonia and an alkali metal such as sodium or lithium. The reaction is allowed to stand until the ammonia evaporates.
(251) Police seized large quantities of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, common pre­cur­sor chemicals for the manufacture of metham­phetamine, from defendant’s home. He claimed on appeal that the district court erred when it used the aggregate weight of the entire mixture containing the precursor chemicals to calculate his sentence. Sign in with your organizational account ... Sign in
Lithium can be used to reduce pseudoephedrine and ephedrine to methamphetamine in the Birch reduction method, which employs solutions of alkali metals dissolved in anhydrous ammonia. However, the effectiveness of such restrictions in controlling illegal production of methamphetamine remains indeterminate and controversial. Pseudoephedrine 60Mg Tab (Stat) 2504831 Sudafed 30Mg Tab (Stat) 2504832 Sulfadiazine 500Mg Tab (Stat) 2504835 Tetracycline 250Mg Cap (Stat) 2504836 Tetracycline 500Mg Cap (Stat) 2504838 Docusate Ca 240Mg Cap (Stat) 2504840 Amantadine 100Mg Cap (Stat) 2504841 Synalar .025% 15Gm Cr (Stat) 2504845 Levothyroxine 0.05Mg T (Stat) 2504846 ...
The Birch reduction is dangerous since the alkali metal and liquid anhydrous ammonia are both extremely reactive, and because the temperature of liquid ammonia makes it susceptible to explosive boiling when reactants are added. Other less-common methods use other means of hydrogenation, such as hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalyst. This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. For the decongestant, l-methamphetamine, see Levomethamphetamine. [12] The Birch reduction method-also known as the Nazi method-uses ephedrine or pseudoephedrine, anhydrous ammonia, and sodium or lithium metal and requires less than 1 hour to produce methamphetamine that is about 95 percent pure.
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